Coming from PRIMATES
Leading to HOMININS
=The Apes= ''Hominoid, Hominid or Hominin?'' [image:http://i.imgur.com/MgCTn6w.jpg?1] '''Homonoids:''' All apes belong to a group known as Hominoids. This includes Gibbons (pictured), Gorillas, Orangutans, Chimpanzees and Bonobos [image:http://i.imgur.com/chCPjdg.png?2] '''Homonids:''' The african (or greater) apes from which we are descendants are known as Hominids. This includes Gorillas, Orangutans, Chimpanzees and Bonobos. [image:http://i.imgur.com/92l2YvL.png?1] '''Homonins:''' The human lineage, including our most direct ancestors, that finally diverged from the african apes are known as the '''Homonins'''. [image:http://i.imgur.com/IClHJAu.png?1]Apes are too large to run along small branches as monkeys do, instead swing from branches using their arms. This is called '''brachiation''' and allows large animals to reach fruit at the ends of small branches (and involves a more upright posture). Without any role in balance the tail has become absent. This lifestyle has resulted in arms that are very powerful and longer than the legs, the chest if flatter from front to back and the clavicle (collar bone) is large since it supports hanging by the arms. The fingers are curved and the thumb is small, helping the hands to hook over branches. The hand is much more motile and can be rotated (as in a screwdriver action) through an angle of 180°, twice that of most other primates. If the arms are held straight the hand can actually be rotated through 180°, meaning branches can be grasped from any direction. However, their curved fingers make it impossible to walk with their hand flat (plantigrade) on the ground. Instead apes will walk on their knuckles. =Common Ape Characteristics= *Terrestrial and / or brachiators *Knuckle walkers *No tail *Semi-erect or fully erect posture *Flat, broad chest, pelvis, and shoulders *Relatively long arms and mobile shoulder and hand joints *Large brain
Credit: Ben Himme