branch ANIMALS

=Territory= A territory is a geographical area that an individual marks and defends. [image:http://i.imgur.com/WMrpJvd.png] A territory provides a safe place for young to be raised and usually contains a breeding / nesting site at its centre. Some organisms only have territories or defend them more vigorously during mating season. A territory can be marked out using movements (displays), sound (calling) or smell (scent). However, it costs time and ENERGY to defend a territory. For this reason territories are relatively small and some organisms will only defend their territory during mating season. ''The image (left) depicts a jaguar marking his territory with scent gland in his writs and chin'' [image:http://i.imgur.com/rltjTOd.gif] Wolves marking their territory by howling. All members in the pack will howl together as a warning to neighbouring packs. This signals the range of their territory and how well defended it is. =Home Range= [image:http://i.imgur.com/3BPWDaim.png] This is the wider geographical area that an animal will seldom leave (unless they migrate in order to breed elsewhere). An animal’s home range is usually much larger than its territory. Unlike territories, a home range is not actively defended and home ranges may overlap. The size of a home range will depend on: • Density of resources (food) • Population density • Competition with other species • Position in hierarchy of the individual or group Home ranges may often be smaller than we think. Snapper rarely leave their home range, which can be as small as 100m2 (except to breed, when they migrate elsewhere).