=Nomenclature= Nomenclature is a synonym for 'naming'. Chemists need a system of rules to name organic compounds, so that they can communicate effectively about a compound, knowing that everyone else understands what they are taking about! IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) have certain rules about naming compounds. These rules are below. =Rules for Naming Organic Compounds= ==Functional groups (homologous series) and their suffixes== Alkanes -ane Alkenes -ene Alkynes -yne Alcohols -ol Carboxylic acids -oic acid Amines -anamine (this is not the actual IUPAC naming for amines, but it is the easiest) Note that if you have a double or triple bond, you need to have a number showing what carbons it is located between. For example pent-2-ene or 2-pentene is [image:] ==# of carbons and their prefixes== 1 Meth- 2 Eth- 3 Prop- 4 But- 5 Pent- 6 Hex- 7 Hept- 8 Oct- ==Naming Branches== Note that if you have a parent chain, the prefix is just like the information above. But if you have a side-chain or branch coming from a longer parent chain, it is named with -yl at the end of the prefix. Branches must have a number before their name to represent the carbon that they are attached to on the parent chain. For example [image:] is known as 2-methylbutane. ==Halogens== When an atom from group 17 (Br Cl, I, F) is added to a hydrocarbon it is named similar to a side-chain. Br = Bromo- F = Fluoro- Cl = Chloro- I = Iodo For example 1-chorobutane is [image:]
Credit: Megan Fowler, Ben Himme