DISPERSAL OF MODERN HUMANS
OUT OF AFRICA HYPOTHESIS
=The Spread of Modern Humans= There are two theories accounting for the dispersal of modern Homo sapiens: The '''Multi-regional''' hypotheses suggests that erectus, who left Africa some 2 million years ago, evolved simultaneously into anatomically modern humans. This theory suggests that the Neanderthals, Denisovans and heidelbergensis were all simply regional variants of the same species that evolved into modern ''Homo sapiens'' The '''Out of Africa''' hypothesis suggests that anatomically modern humans originated in Africa and begun to emigrate somewhere between 120,000 - 60,000 years ago. It suggests that when modern humans spread globally they replaced the other hominin groups. Genetic evidence over the last decade has provided greater support for this theory and it is more widely accepted than the multi-regional hypothesis. Current evidence suggests anatomically modern ''H sapiens'' left Africa as early as 120,000 years ago, and by 50,000 years ago had reached Australia. Evidence suggests there may have only been a single exodus from Africa and that only a few hundred people were involved. Between 40,000 and 12,000 years ago, humans moved north into Europe. However, their range was limited by an ice sheet that extended into the northern part of continental Europe. The colder temperatures at this time also meant sea levels were much lower and America and Asia were connected by a land bridge, eventually allowing people access into America. Humans initially followed the coastline and rivers, probably because they were easier to navigate than the densely forested mainland and fishing may have offered a stable food source. [image:http://i.imgur.com/njMxUOk.png?1] Interestingly, there is a stretch of water between South-East Asia and Australia that is separated by a stretch of deep water that could have only been crossed by some kind of boat or raft. It is here that we find the Flores island where , ''Homo floresiensis'' survived undisturbed by modern humans until as recently as 12,000 years ago.
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